Many smart people do not live up to their potential. It is also true that prejudices and lack of opportunities have surely prevented some brilliant people from reaching their full potential and being recognized. Still, for the sake of argument, we will use all criteria at our disposal to come up with a list of the brightest humans.
Note: while IQ testing was developed in the early 1900s, there have been subsequent studies that estimated IQs of geniuses of the past. Anything above 140 is generally considered near genius-level.
24. William Siddis (1898-1944) was an American child prodigy, whose IQ was reportedly between 250-300, perhaps the highest ever. He had outstanding abilities in math, entered Harvard at age 11, and claimed to know 40 languages. An MIT professor predicted the young Siddis would become the greatest mathematician of the 20th century. William crashed and burned as an adult, however, holding menial jobs and getting in trouble with the law, never finding an avenue to live up to the expectations.
William Sidis. 1914.
23. Judit Polgar (b. 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster, widely regarded as the strongest female chess player of all time. She broke Chess World Champion Bobby Fischer’s record to become grandmaster at age 15. Her IQ is recorded as 170.
The youngest international chess grand master, 17-year-old Judit Polgar (L) writes down her first move 16 February, 1993 in her last match with Russian born chess champion Boris Spassky (R) in Budapest. (Photo credit: ATTILA KISBENEDEK/AFP/Getty Images)
22. Philip Emeagwali (b. 1954) is a Nigerian inventor and scientist, reportedly with an IQ of 190, voted as the “greatest African scientist of all time”. Although this claim is controversial, his math work is often credited as being instrumental in the creation of the internet.
Philip Emeagwali with Exxon-Mobil partial differential equations for petroleum reservoir simulations across an internet powered by 65,536 computers. 2013. ©Photo: emeagwali.com